flash cards

Science Chapter 6

Question Answer
Fossil record is made up of all the fossils ever discovered on Earth
Mineralization minerals in the water replacer the organism's original material and harden into rock, a fossil forms
Carbonization a fossil forms when a dead organism is compressed over time and pressure drives off the organism's liquids and gasses
Mold the impression of an organism in a rock
Cast is a fossil copy of an organism in a rock
Trace fossil is the preserved evidence of the activity of an organism
Relative dating how your age compares to the age of those around you. A rock is either older or younger than the rocks nearby. Scientists determine the relative order in which rock layers were deposited.
Isotopes used to measure absolute age
Absolute-age dating scientists take advantage of radioactive decay, a natural clocklike process in rocks
Geologic time scale is a chart that divides Earth's history into different time units
Extinction occurs when the last individual organism of a species dies
Evolution Change over time in what appears to be a sequence
Biological evolution is the change over time in populations of related organisms
Naturalist is a person who studies plants and animals by observing them
Variation is a slight difference in an inherited trait of individual members of a species
Natural selection is the process by which populations of organisms with variations that help them survive in their environments live longer, compete better, and reproduce more than those that do not have the variations
adaptation is an inherited trait that increases an organism's chance of surviving and reproducing in it's environment.
Structural adaptation involve color, shape, and other physical characteristics like the shape of a tortoises neck
Behavioral adaptation involve the way an organism behaves or acts like hunting at night and moving in herds
Functional adaptation involve internal body systems that affect biochemistry like a drop in body temperature during hibernation.
Camouflage is an adaptation that enables a species to blend in with its environment.
Mimicry the resemblance of one species to another species
on the origin of species book written by Charles Darwin to explain his theory of evolution
Selective breeding the breeding of organisms for desired characteristics
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences among structures of living species
Homologous structures are body parts of organisms that are similar in structure and position but different in function
Analogous structures body parts that perform a similar function but differ in structure
Vestigial structures are body parts that have lost their original function through evolution
Embryology the science of development of embryos from fertilization to birth
Pharyngeal pouches this feature develops into different body parts in each vertebrate
Molecular biology is the study of gene structure and function.
Divergence Scientist have found that some stretches of shared DNA mutate at regular predictable rates. Scientists us this molecular clock to estimate at what time in the past living things diverged from common ancestors

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