flash cards

Rehab Psych

Question Answer
Defining learning disabilities as a multidisciplinary issue Many different types of professionals work with students with disabilities including physicians, speech-language pathologists, educators and psychologists. Each of these professions has its own terms, labels and definitions
What is RTI? Response to intervention; a strategy used for determining whether a pupil has a learning disability. A student gets exposed “validated instructional intervention”, if responsiveness does not increase, it’s possible to be considered for special ed.
Tier 1 of RTI In a general education classroom; lasts about 5-10 weeks where there is “preventative instruction” for about 65-75% of students
Tier 2 of RTI (8 weeks); a more intensive supplemental instruction that focuses on specific areas of need
Tier 3 of RTI Greater than 8 weeks. This is the most specialized instruction, addresses specific needs of individual learners, and is 5% of students.
How can technology be used to benefit individuals with learning disabilities? Assistive technology serves as a cognitive prosthesis, helping students to compensate for challenges as well as become effective and efficient learners; address content-area learning like audiobooks or text-to-speech for students who struggle with reading
Learning disabilities- reading Troubles with reading comprehension, dyslexia, phonological awareness, deficiencies in oral reading.
Learning disabilities- mathematics Difficulties with computational skills, word problems, spatial relationships, writing numbers, copying shapes, telling time, understanding fractions and decimals, measuring.
Learning disabilities- spoken language Problems with appropriate word choice, difficulty understanding complex sentence structures, and difficulty answering questions
Learning disabilities- memory Difficulties remembering both academic and nonacademic information such as doctors appointments, homework assignments, multiplication facts, directions, and phone numbers.
Learning disabilities- metacognition The lack of awareness of one’s own thinking process. Key components include a recognition of task requirements, implementation of the appropriate process, and monitoring, evaluating, and adjusting one’s performance.
Three subtypes of ADHD Predominately inattentive type, predominately hyperactive-impuslive type, combined type
Symptoms typical for inattentive type ADHD Inability to pay close attention to details, making careless mistakes, and have difficulty sustaining attention (easily distracted)
Symptoms typical for hyperactive type ADHD The inability to sit still, fidgeting, talking excessively, blurting out answers, difficulty waiting for turns, and acting without thinking.
Ethnic and cultural factors may lead to _______ of ADHD in some minority groups Over-diagnosis
Medical evaluation of ADHD To rule out other possible causes for the person’s hyperactivity/inattention, to help doctors decide which medication to prescribe
Behavioral evaluation of ADHD Rating scales used to quantify the severity of the behaviors. Evaluations take place both at home and in school; the teacher can evaluate the individual performance in the classroom.
Why do those with ADHD experience difficulty in school? They may struggle with paying attention to lessons, completing homework or just staying seated during class.
Positive behavioral support model An alternative approach to punishment; a proactive way of addressing problematic behaviors; designed to prevent the problems from happening in the first place, and if they do happen to intervene early to prevent them from escalating further
Mnemonic devices The use of rhymes, pictures, acronyms, and similar aids to help recall material
Self-monitoring strategies Behavioral self-control strategies where people compare their performance to a criterion, record their efforts, and obtain reinforcement if possible
Content enhancement An instructional aid designed to assist people in understanding major concepts, ideas, and vocabulary in a way that aids the acquisition, organization, and recall of material
A consistent finding of research has been that people with emotional or behavioral disorders typically score in the ______ range on measures of intelligence low to average
Researchers report that individuals with emotional or behavioral disorders on average have ____ grades, grade retention, and high school graduation rates lower
A social characteristic of students with emotional or behavioral disorders Difficulty building and maintaining satisfactory interpersonal relationships
Long-term outcomes for students with emotional or behavioral disorders School failure, delinquency, adult psychiatric problems, substance abuse, and other problems. Students with emotional or behavioral disorders leave school before graduation, the highest dropout rate among all categories of students with disabilities.
Autistic Savant An individual with autism spectrum disorder who possesses special skills in areas such as mathematical calculations, memory feats, artistic and musical abilities, or reading
DSM 5 definition of ASD A neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a pervasive developmental disorder. Autism, Aspergers and pervasive developmental disorder all under ASD. Three levels; requiring support, requiring substantial support , requiring very substantial support
IDEA definition of ASD A developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, is usually evident before the age of three, and adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

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