flash cards


Question Answer
Phonemes Are Basic unites of sound that can change the meaning of a word. The phoneme in word bit changes the meaning of the word.
Language As a communication system in which a limited number of signals sounds or letters (or gestures in case of the sign language used by deaf people.
Morphemes The basic units of meaning that exist in a word
Syntax Rules specifying how words can be combined to form meaningful sentences in a language
Semantics The Aspect of language centering on meanings
Pragmatics Are rules specifying how language is to be used appropriately in different social context to achieve goals
Prosody The melody or sound pattern of an speech including intonation, stress and timing with which something is said
Noam Chomsky:
Universal grammar A system of common rules and properties for learning any world of the world languages.
Language acquisition device Exposure to language for activates the areas of the brain collectively. Enables a child to infer the rules governing others speech and then use these rules to produce rules
Poverty of the stimulus Term for the notion that the language inputs young children is so impoverished or limited that they could not possibly acquire language
Child directed speech A term that is used describe speech adults use with infants and young children short, simple sentences spoken slowly, in a high pitched voice often with much repetition and exaggerated emphasis on key words.
Expansion A conversational tactic used by adults speaking to young children in which they respond to a child utterance with a more grammatically complete expression of the same thought
Mastering Language Milestones
Word segmentation In language development the ability to break the steam of speech sounds into distinct words
Cooing A early form of vocalization that involves repeating vowel like sounds
Babbling A early form vocalization that appears between 4 and 6 moths of age and involves repeating consonant vowel combinations such as baba or dadada
Social cues
Joint attention Act of looking at the same object at the same with someone else a way in which infants share perceptual experiences with their caregivers
Syntactic bootstrapping Using the syntax of a sentence that is where a word is placed in a sentence to determine the meaning of the word
Holophrases A single word that utterance used by an infant that represents an entire sentence worth of meaning
Vocabulary spurt A phenomenon occurring around 18 months of age when the pace of word learning quickens dramatically
Fast mapping The capacity of young language learners to readily determine the object or other referent of word and then remember this for future encounters with word
Language errors
Overextension Young child tendency to use a word to refer to a wider set of objects, actions or events than adults (for example using the word car to refer all motor vehicles)
Under extension Young child tendency to use general words to refer to a smaller set of object, actions or events than adults( for example using candy to reform only mints
Telegraphic Speech Early combinations of two, three or more words. Early sentences that consist primarily of content words and omit the less meaningful parts of speech such as articles, prepositions, pronouns and auxilary verbs
Functional grammar One that emphasizes the semantic relationship among words the meanings being expressed and the functions served by sentences (such as naming, questioning or commanding).
Over regularization Over generalization of observed grammatical rules to irregular cases to which the rules do not apply (Example would saying mouses instead mice)
Transformational grammar Rules of syntax for transforming basic underlying thoughts into a variety of sentence forms.
Mastery Motivation A striving for mastery or competence appears to inborn and universal and will display itself in the behavior of all typical infants without prompting from parents.
Early Education
EXPANDING LANGUAGE SKILLS School age children improve their pronunciation skills produce longer and more complex sentence and continue to expand their vocabularies.
Metalinguistic awareness Knowledge of language as a system
Fixed mindset The belief that intelligence and other traits are fixed or static associated with the tendency to want to prove rather than improve one ability
Growth mindset The belief that intelligence is not fixed but malleable and can therefore be improved through hard work and effort
Child Contributions
Mastery goals Achievement situations aiming to learn new things in order to learn new things in order to learn or improve ability
Performance goals A goal adopted by learners in which they attempt to prove their ability rather to improve it.
Parent Contributions parents can foster their child achievement motivation by stressing and reinforcing the process of learning rather than emphasizing the product
1. Pre-alphabetic phrase Children memorize selected visual cues to remember words.
2. Partial-alphabetic phrase Children learn the shapes and sounds of letters. They begin to connect at least one letter in a word usually the first to its corresponding sound
3. Full alphabetic phase Children know all the letters and make complete connection between written letters and their corresponding sounds
4. Consolidated alphabetic phase Children are able to group letters that regularly occur together into a unit. Instance the letter sequence which frequently appears at the end of verb
Emergent Literacy The developmental precursors of reading skills in young children including knowledge, skills and attributes that will facilitate the acquisition of reading competence
Skilled and Unskilled Readers
Dyslexia Serious difficulties learning to read in children who have normal intellectual ability and no sensory impairments or emotional difficulties that could account for their learning problems
Student Characteristics
Teacher and School Characteristics
Student-Environment Interaction
1. Puberty
2. Changing schools
3. Realistic thinking
4. Peer acceptance
5. Risk factors in families
LANGUAGE The knowledge of phonology they gained as children although elders can have difficulty distinguishing speech sounds
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Adults with strong achievement needs are also likely to be more competent workers than adults who are less interested in mastering challenges
LITERACY Is the ability to use information to function in society, achieve goals and develop one potential.
CONTINUING EDUCATION The number of “older” adults attending college is expected to increase as the overall population ages.

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