flash cards

History Chpter 12-13 History Chapter 12-13 Test

Question Answer
The Wilmot Proviso said that slavery must be banned in all new territories
The term popular sovereignty means residents of a territory should decide the status of slavery
Free-soilers were individuals who opposed its extension into new territories
While building a mill what did Sutter find that changed his entire life? gold
Why were California gold rush miners called forty-niners? the migration to California started in 1849
The Compromise of 1850 included all of the following provisions EXCEPT New Mexico be made a slave state
Harriet Beecher Stowe's book caused quite a stir in the north. What was the name of this book? Uncle Tom's Cabin
What party replaced the Whig party? Republicans
John Brown was a fanatical abolitionist who was responsible for the Bleeding Kansas`
What short-lived party arose in 1848 to oppose the spread of slavery? Free Soil Party
What party had the slogan "Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men"? Free Soil Party
Which state's boundaries was settled following Webster-Ashburton negotiations with Britain? Maine
What Catholic mission became the rallying cry of the Texans during their war for independence? Alamo
Which state seceded from the Union first? South Carolina
How did the Santa Fe Trail differ in purpose from the Oregon and Mormon trails? traveled along the trial for trade purposes
What popular idea held that it was America's destiny to stretch from sea to sea? Manifest Dynasty
What event caused lower South to secede? election of Lincoln
Davy Crockett died at the Alamo true
The Oregon Trail was the most important of all of the emigration trails true
The 3 biggest dangers traveling the western trails were animal and Indian attacks, bad weather false
A "dark horse" candidate is not considered a serious candidate until they win the election true
The California gold rush attracted British citizens to Oregon false
The Compromise of 1850 did all of the following except allow the admittance of Texas to the Union
Who was the Founder of Mormonism? Joseph Smith
The cotton gin was somewhat responsible of the continuation of slavery
Missouri Compromise: Brought Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state
Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph
Robert E. Lee was the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
The President of the Confederacy was Jefferson Davis
• Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 New intellectual and religious movements, Social reforms, Beginnings of the industrial revolution in America, Western Expansion
Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845, The right of our manifest destiny to move out Wes
The Pony Express Between April, 1860 to Nov., 1861, Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA, Took 10 days, Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line
Aroostook “War,” 1839 only war ever declared by state; Between Canadian region of New Brunswick and Maine; Cause: expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials; Congress called 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for war;
Aroostook “War,” 1839 (Cont.) General Winfield Scott arranged truce & border commission was convened to resolve issue; Webster-Ashburton Treaty – Clearly defined borders between U.S. and Canada; Adam-Onis Treaty – established border between Louisiana territory and Spanish held Mexico
Texas Independence (1836-1845) Texas Declaration of Independence; Declared themselves independent from Mexican government
Steven Austin (1793-1836) Born in Virginia and raised in Southeastern Missouri; Led first legal and successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families form the U.S.; The Republic of Texas created by a new constitution on March 2, 1836, won independence from Mexico.
Sam Houston (1793-1863) Lived in the Cherokee Nation and was officially welcomed into the tribe; After annexation of Texas, Houston was elected Senator; Houston was elected Governor of Texas and was one of the only two men to serve as a Governor of two states
Remember the Alamo Battle at the Alamo; All men who were defending the Alamo were killed (125)
Jim Bowie Born in Logan County, Kentucky in 1796; Commander of the Alamo; Most reports state his consumption (tuberculosis) had him bedridden during this final days; Died at the Alamo on March 6, 1836 at 40 years old
Davy Crockett Born in Eastern Tennessee; Came to Texas as a Tennessee volunteers to Protect Texas; Died at the Alamo
Santa Anna Born in Jalapa, Mexico on Feb. 21, 1795; Never married; Died at the age of 81; Defeated American troops
William Travis Brought 25 men as reinforcements; He and all his men were killedat the Alamo
Trails Westward 3 Immigration routes and 1 Trade route
Immigration Routes St. Louis Trail; Oregon Trail; Mormon Trail
Oregon Trail California Trail was a trail that split off from Oregon trail that went to Sacramento, California
Mormon Trail Mormonism began in U.S.; John Smith started Mormonism; Mormons were forced to leave; Went to Salt Lake City, Utah
Trade Route Santa Fe Trail used for trade
Oregon Dispute Line drawn to give Canada part of Oregon and U.S. part of Oregon
The Slidell Mission: Nov. 1845 Rio Grande River would be TX/US border; US would forgive American citizens claim against Mexican Government
Wilmot Proviso 1846 Congressman David Wilmot (D-PA); Provided, territory from the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the US, by any treaty between them neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime
The Mexican War (1846-1848) War between the US and Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 treaty forced on Mexico; Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River; Mexico gave the US California and New Mexico; US gave Mexico gave $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000)
Results of the Mexican War 17 month war cost $100 mil. & 13k+ US lives (most disease); terr. brought into Union forced slavery to center of politics; Brought 1 mil. sq. mi. of land (incl. Texas); terr. upset balance of power btwn north and south; Manifest Destiny partially realized
Gold At Sutter’s Mill 1848
Free Soil Party Barnburners – discontented northern Democrats; Anti-slavery members of the Liberty and Whig Parties; Opposition to the extension of slaver in the new territories
The 1848 Presidential Election Zachary Taylor (Whig) wins electoral votes and popular vote
California Gold Rush 49ers
By 1860, almost ____ people had traveled out West 300k
Marbury vs. Madison Jefferson refused to deliver Adams' midnight appointments ; “Is Exec Branch responsible to deliver prev appointments?”; Judgement was when Constitution conflicts w/ law/act, then law/act is invalid: deemed Unconstitutional; Established Judicial review
McCulluch vs. Maryland Congress have authority to est. bank? and Can state law interfere w/ Congr. powers?; Ruling – Congress had power to create national bank & Maryland didnt have power to tax; Constitution=Supreme law of land; Established delegated powers for the nat. gov.
Gibbons vs. Ogden Did NY exercise the authority in a realm reserved exclusively to Congress? Interstate Commerce; Ruling – New York monopoly on shipping conflicted with the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution. Law became null and void; Established implied power
John Brown Abolitionist; Considers himself a martyr; The Protest started out violent in Kansas over Popular Sovereignty over Slavery (False, It started out peaceful, but became violent)
John Brown Cont. Folk hero (martyr) to the North, but a terrorist to the South; He believes he is God’s chosen instrument; Kansas “bleed for 2 years”; Over 200 people were killed over a 2 year period; executed for treason
John Brown Attack on Harper's Ferry Oct. 1859 (Plans to capture the federal arsenal in Harbors Ferry); Wants to arm southern slaves and lead a slave rebellion; No slaves help Brown and his sons take the federal arsenal, so he becomes trapped
Abe Lincoln May 18, 1860 (Abe Lincoln runs for president because hated slavery); South not happy he won, but North was; election was final straw for South; Makes war inevitable; Abe says he will not abolish slavery where it already exist, but would not let it expand
Leading up to the Civil War North had distinct advantage
North Advantages More factories, money, people and workers, food crops, railroad tracks, guns, textiles, pig iron, immigrants,Higher value of products and Bigger Army
South advantages More cotton, donkeys, slaves (34% of population were slaves) and Better trained army
Railroad Lines 1860 5 different common gauge sizes for train tracks; Made it difficult to mass transport products
Leaders of Confederacy President -Jefferson Davis; Vice-President – Alexander Stevens; Confederate “White House” – Richmond, Virginia; Motto – “With God as Our Vindicator”
Leaders of Union President – Abraham Lincoln; Vice-President – Hannibal Hamlin
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott (too old); Irwin McDowell (too slow); George McClellan (didnt follow retreats); Ambrose Burnside (not smart); Joseph Hooker (bad job); George McClellan again (bad job a second time); Ulysses S. Grant was chosen (stayed for rest of war)
North’s Civil War Strategy "Anaconda” Plan; Wanted to squeeze out the Confederacy from the North and South; Worked
Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson (shot by one of his own man); George Pickett; Replaced by James Longstreet; Nathan Forrester (started KKK); Finally Robert E. Lee was chosen as general (remained general for the remainder of the war)
Causes of the War of 1812 Impressment–British stopping US ships & forcing US sailors into British navy; Embargo Act of 1807; Tecumseh attacked frontier; British hadnt left forts in Ohio River Valley and limiting territorial expansion opport. in West; matter of national pride
Embargo Act of 1807 attempted to solve diplomatically by closing all American ports for foreign trade but was unpopular; Called the O’Grab Me Act (Embargo backwards)
Tecumseh, Shawnee Indian Chief, Attacking Western Frontier Americans believe the British encouraged the Shawnee to attack frontier settlements; William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe and the final defeat and the death of Tecumseh occurred at the battle of the Thames
Supporters for the War “War Hawk” Republicans – mostly from the West and South; Henry Clay of Kentucky- Speaker of the House of Representatives; John Calhoun – Senator from South Carolina; In June 1812, President James Madison asks Congress for a Declaration of War
The Battle of York US win victory in York (present day Toronto); Troops loot and burn the fort and town (the capital city)
The Burning of Washington, DC British capture DC in August 1814; Set fire to the Presidential mansion and capital; Madison escaped
The Battle of Fort McHenry British advance to Baltimore; bombarded Ft. McHenry in Sept. 1814; Francis Scott Key witnesses the attack and his poem about it becomes our National Anthem
The Treaty of Ghent After battles across all of North America, a treaty is negotiated in Dec. of 1814; war ends in a stalemate
The Battle of New Orleans Word of the Treaty has not yet reached New Orleans; In Jan. 1815 Gen. Andrew Jackson decisively defeats the Invading British; Makes Andrew Jackson a national hero
Effects of the War Surge in Nationalism; Election of James Monroe; Era of Good Feelings – 1817-25; Economic nationalism through Henry Clay’s American System; US increase stature; Monroe Doctrine asserts US role in West Hemi.; Adams-Otis Treaty w/ Spain bring Florida into US
3 parts to the American System A Protectionist Tariff; 2nd national bank; Internal improvements (roads, canals and railroads)
National Bank – Alexander Hamilton Implied “necessary and proper clause”; Thomas Jefferson fought it and claimed it was un-Constitutional
Election of 1800 1st time partys were oppos; Over Alien & Sedition Acts; Nat. Bank; Nat. Debt; Raise taxes; Jefferson opposed Alien & Sedition Acts & Nat. Bank, but pro-paying Nat. Debt; Rev. of 1800; Jefferson beats Adams; Demo- republ win; 1st peaceful trans of power
John Adams pushed through the Judiciary Act of 1801 Established Federal judgeship; Made midnight appointments the day before Thomas Jefferson was put into office
Thomas Jefferson 1st president inaugurated in DC; Outlines his essential principles of a more limited government; “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
Early Accomplishments of Jefferson Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire; Cut all internal taxes; Uses tariffs and sales of Western land to reduce the National Debt
The Barbary Wars Muslim pirates from N. Africa in Mediter. Sea; Attack US ships & demand tributes; Jefferson got Quran to study Muslims; Put pigs on ships so Muslims would not board; Jefferson sent USS Constitution & orders blockade; pirates sign treaty to end payments
Where did the United States nickname “Uncle Sam” come from? It came from a man named Samuel Wilson who was a meat packer in New York. He sent meat to US army and labeled barrels of meat with “US” on it; soldiers began to call the meat that was sent to them “Uncle Sam’s” because of the “US” initial on the barrels
What was nullification? Nullification is a doctrine which gives a state the power to declare a federal law unconstitutional and be allowed to not follow the law. The state of South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1828
What did the Tariff of 1828 do? This was a tariff passed in 1828 that put high taxes on imports into the U.S.. It was designed to protect industrialism in the U.S.. The South thought that the tariff was aimed toward benefiting the North only. It hurt South as they depended on imports
Spoils System This is a political practice in which a political party gives government jobs to their party when they win an election as an award. In doing this, these government workers are encouraged to continue voting for their party
What is the most-controversial section of the Compromise of 1850? The most controversial section of the Compromise of 1850 was the Fugitive Slave Law. This was a law that made it so that anyone who knew a slave was required to turn that slave into the authorities. This law angered New Englanders.
Why were northerners troubled by the Kansas-Nebraska Act? This act allowed for a state north of the 38th Parallel (which was the line set by the Missouri Compromise) to allow slavery. They also thought that these new states allowing slavery would create a threat to their economic stability.
Missouri Compromise Missouri enters as a slave state; Maine free state; Missouri Compromise line at the 36’30 degree parallel would separate slave states. Anything above would be free.
Compromise of 1850 California free and Texas slaveSouthwest territoryAdjust border of Texas and MexicoSlave trade illegal in D.C.Tougher fugitive slave law
Indian Removal Act This was an act passed in 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. It gave Jackson the authority to give unsettled lands west of the Mississippi River to the Indians in exchange for Indian lands that were within state borders.
Sectionalism As the U.S. got closer and closer to the Civil War, citizens began to identify more and more as Northerners and Southerners rather than Americans. People were more loyal to their part of the country than the country as a whole.
William Lloyd Garrison Garrison wrote and published many anti-slavery articles in his newspaper which helped raise support for the Abolition Movement. William was also an active member of the Abolition Movement.
Grimke Sisters became widely renowned for making a stand in favor of the Abolitionist Movement;went above a woman's role and influenced many through their powerful tracts and speeches; first woman to stand up and speak in favor of women having equal rights.
Frederick Douglass Fredrick Douglass was a leader of the AbolitionistMovement. He was a freed slave who became a veryinfluential speaker, author and advisor on many political topics,such as women's rights and slavery.
Who came up with the term Manifest Destiny? John Louis O'Sullivan

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *