flash cards

History Chapter 4

Question Answer
What was the geography of Greece like(terrain) Greece was on a peninsula. They had mountains , seas, and islands in their territory.
What is a peninsula? A body of land with water on three sides of it.
What are five ways Greece's geography influenced the early Greeks and how they lived? 1) they were able fish because Greece was on a coast2.) they were able to sail 3.)they had access to water and ships4.) They used their geography to trade5.) They could hunt and farm because they had access to mountains and land.
List the four geographic section of Greece(what you'd see on a map) 1.) Greek Peninsula2.) the Peloponnese3.) the island of Crete4.) their other islands
who were the Minoans? The Minoans were a group that lived on the island of Crete and they had a sea-centered culture. They traded to become wealthy and since they lived on an island, they built boats.
What happened to the Minoans? Their empire collapsed when they had undersea earthquake that cause tsunamis and while they were recovering, the Mycenaeans attacked.
Who were the Mycenaeans? They were from Central Asia and they conquered the Greek Peninsula.
What did the Mycenaeans have that helped them in battle? The Mycenaeans had a fortified place on hill
Who were the Dorians? The Dorians were a group of Greek speaking people. The lived in Northern Greece but then they started to come down. They with them iron tools.
Where did the Dorians settle The Dorians settled on the Peloponnese .
What did the Dorians do? The Dorians brought back the Greeks from the Dark Age.
Why was iron better than bronze? Iron was cheaper and more durable.
Why did Greece have colonies? Greece had colonies because they had a lot of people living there and not enough food to feed them all.
Where were the Greek colonies? Italy, France, Spain, North Africa, and Western Asia
What is an Acropolis? An acropolis is a temple above the Polis.
What was the purpose of the Acropolis? The purpose of the Acropolis was to help the military to see and defend against the enemy.
Why was it good to have a military fort on a hill 1.) It was better to fight a battle downhill2.) They could have a view to see if the enemy was coming
What the requirement to be a citizen? You had to be a free, native-born man
What is a Hoplite? A hoplite was a regular citizen and they couldn't afford horses so they fought on foot. They fought in a Phalanx formation.
What was a hoplite named after? They were named after their shields called hoplon.
What was a Helot? A helot was Spartan slave.
Where did the Helots come from? When the Spartans conquered a country, they took their people as slaves.
What was the ratio of Helots to Spartans? 10 to 1
When did the Sparta kids leave home? At age 7
When was the Spartan training over? At age 20
How long did they serve the military? 10 years
After age 30 what did they do and until what age? Stay in shape until age 60
What was expected of them? To win or die; no surrender
What did mothers tell their children when they left the house? Come back with you shield or on it
How did the Spartans address not having enough food? They conquered other groups, took their land, and took their people as hostages.
What was the constant worry of Sparta? That the Helots would revolt against them.
Who supervised the Helots? The Women
What kind of government did Sparta have? An oligarchy
What was an Oligarchy? ruled by a few
How many kings did Sparta have? two
The Spartans had a council of *blank* and council of*blank* elders and 500
What was the function of the Assembly? Who was in it? They voted on public and private issues. They had as many as 6,000 people in it. It was just regular citizens in it.
What was an Ephor? An Ephor was a group of 5. They enforced the laws and managed the taxes. They also killed babies that were deformed or were sickly.
Who chose who would be an Ephor? The Assembly
How many people were in the council of elders? 28(the elders that were still alive)
Who was Darius? Darius started out as a body guard. He spent his first years putting down revolts. Then he started his conquest. They had so much land that they split Persia into 20 provinces.
What did Darius do? He installed governors in provinces and installed a royal road called "A Satrap"
Where did the Satrap cover? It started in Sardis and went through Anatolia and Ninevah and ended in Susa. It was 1677 miles long.
Who Leonidas? He was an older commander in the Battle of Thermopylae.
What happened before the Battle of Thermopylae? It was predicted that a greek commander would fall before the battle was over.
What were some of the things that Leonidas said to the Persians? Xerxes told the greeks to surrender their weapons and Leonidas had so much courage that he said come and get them.
What happened to Leonidas in the end? He was shot with an arrow and Xerxes ordered his soldiers to find his body and cut off his head. He then put his head on a stick and paraded around with it.
Who were Herodotus and Plutarch? They were two historians that recorded the Battle of Thermoylae.
Who Xerxes? He was the Persian commander for the Battle of Thermoylae. He wanted to conquered Athens so that he could conquer Greece and Europe. He relied heavily on the Meades (deadly archers) and 10,000 immortals
What was significant about the battle of Marathon This battle involved the Persians whose leader was Darius and Athens.
What was the Battle of Marathon know for? The runner/messenger named Thidibitiex. He ran a very long distance to carry messages during the Battle of Marathon. He died of exhaustion.
Who did King Darius send to Athens? He sent 600 ships to the Marathon Bay.
Who had the advantage of the Battle of Marathon and why? The Persians had an army that was the twice the size of the Athenian army.
What did the Battle of Marathon take place The battle took place on a beach.
What happened on the Battle of Marathon? and Athens and Persia had a standoff and the Athenians phalanx had a thin medal with thick sides. This allowed the Athenians to wrap themselves around the Persians who did not like small spaces.
What happened after the Athenians after they beat the first group of Persians? After the Athenians beat that group of Persians, they marched 22 miles towards the other group of Persians and the Persians surrendered.
What was significant about the battle of Thermopylae? The Persians were still not able to invade into Europe
What happened at the Battle of Thermopylae? In Study Guide
Who was involved in the Battle of Thermopylae The Spartans, The Athenians, the Persians, Meads, and the 10,000 Immortals.
How did the Persians start to get an advantage? The Greeks had a traitor and he told the Persians that there was a secret path and under the cover of darkness, the Persians traveled it and attacked.
What was the secret path during the Battle of Thermopylae? The Goat Path
What happened after the Persians traveled the Goat Path? The Spartans were all killed
What happened in the Battle of Salamis? When did it take place? Right after the Battle of Thermopylae. This battle was a water battle. The Greeks won because they had smaller ships.
What kind of ships did the Persians have? Triremes(3 levels of ore-mans)
Who won the Battle of Plataea? Greece
How were Athenian Women treated? Women weren't allowed to leave their house unless there was a special occasion and when they did leave, they were escorted by a man.
What was the long term affect of the Peloponnesian War? The Greek city-state were weekend and Persia helped Sparta beat Athens and because of Greece's eternal problems they made it easy for the Macedonians to invade .
What happened in the Peloponnesian WAr? Athens started to grow and Sparta got suspicious which led to the war. Athens moved all of their people inside their walls. Then Athens sold a piece of land to Persia to get money to a navy.

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