flash cards


Question Answer
Physical development The growth of the body and organs functioning of physiological systems including the brain, physical signs of aging changes in motor abilities
Cognitive development Changes and continuities in perception of language learning memory, problem solving and other mental processes
Psychological development changes and carryover in personal interpersonal aspects of development such as motives
Gain stability model development does involve growth in early life stability in early and middle adulthood and declines associated with effects of aging in later in life
Gain stability loss model Development does involve growth in early life stability in early and middle adulthood and declines associated with effects of aging later in life
Prenatal period Conception to birth
Infancy first 2 years of life
preschool period 2- 5 years
Middle Childhood 6 to 10 months
Adolescence 10- 18 months
Emerging Adulthood 18-25 or even 29
Early adulthood 25-40
Middle Adulthood 40-65
Late Adulthood 65 years or older
Life Expectancy Average number of years a newborn baby can be expected to live now about 78 years in the united states
Lifespan Assumptions A perspective that views development as lifelong multi directional processes that involves gain and loss is characterized by considerable plasticity is shaped by its historical cultural context has many causes and is best viewed from multidisciplinary.
Nature v Nurture The debate over the relative roles of biological predispositions (nature) and environmental influences (nurture) as determinants of human development
Plasticity A openness of brain cells or of the organism as a whole to positive and negative environmental influence a capacity to change in response to experience
Neuroplasticity The brain remarkable ability to change in response to experience throughout the life span as when it recovers from injury or benefits from stimulating learning experiences
Scientific Method An attitude or value about the pursuit of knowledge that dictates that investigators must be objective and must allow their date to decide the merits of their theorizing
Sample Group of individuals chosen to be the subject of a study
Population A well-defined group that researcher who studies a sample of individuals is interested in drawing conclusions about
Actiivity v passivity – The issue in developmental theory centering on whether humans are active contributors to their own development or are passively shaped by forces beyond their control
Species heredity – The genetic endowment that members of the species have in common including genes that influence development and aging processes. *As Humans feel guilty but can’t fly birds can fly but cant feel guilty
1) Genetic Variation- Some members of the species have different genes than other members of the species do
2) Adaptation Variables People with genes for strength and intelligence would likely be better able to adapt with their environment example: Winning fights
3) The idea that nature “ selects” or allows to survive and reproduce those members of a species whose genes help them adapt to their environment
Modern evolutionary psychology- The application of evolutionary theory to understanding why humans think and behave as they do. They ask important questions about how the characteristics and behaviors we observe in humans today adapt to their environment.
Cultural Evolution- conditions and pass it on to the next generation *Example teaching others methods of building igloos or condos, cooking over fire or cooking in microwave.
Conception Results when two ova are released at approximately the same time and each is fertilized by different sperm
Meiosis- The process in which a germ cell divides to producing sperm each containing half of the parent cell original complement of chromosomes in humans that products mostly contains 23 chromosomes
Mitosis- The process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes and then divides into genetically identical daughter cells.
Identical Twin (Mono Zygotic)— They result when one fertilized ovum divides to from two or more genetically identical individuals
Fraternal Twins (Dizyogtic Twins)- Results when two ova are released at approximately the same time and each is fertilized by different sperm
X Chromosomes The longer of the two sex chromosomes normal females 2 X Chromosomes where as normal males have 1
Y Chromosomes The shorter if the two sex chromosomes normal have 1 and females have none
Genotype- The genetic makeup a person inherits inheriting a tall height
Phenotype- Characteristic or trait that a person eventually has
Dominant Gene A relatively powerful gene that is expression phenotypically and masks the effect of a less powerful recessive gene
Recessive Gene A less powerful gene that is not expressed phenotypically when paired with dominant gene.
Polygenic Traits – A change in the structure or arrangement of one or more genes
Down Syndrome it associated with 3 rather than 2 21st chromosomes.
Turner Syndrome a female is born with a single X chromosome rather than two. (XO)
Klinerflter Syndrome A male is born with one or more extra X chromosomes (XXY)
Fragile X syndrome o A male is born with one or more extra X chromosomes (XXY)
Twin Studies – Method of studying genetic and environmental influence of identical twins is compared to that fraternal twins
Adoption Study – Method of Studying genetic and environmental influence that involves determining whether adopted children are more similar to their biological parents or adoptive parents.
Concordance rates; The percentage of pair of people studied example of pairs of identical twins or adoptive parents and children
Heritability Genetic influences are evident example identical twins are more similar in angry emotionality than fraternal twins
Teratogens – Is any disease, drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing example by causing deformities blindness brain damage or even death.

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