flash cards

Cellular Respiration

Term Definition
3 activities of life that require energy Movement, active transport and synthesis of compunds
Oxidizing Nutrients The chemical process by which cells obtain the most energy
ATP (energy) Adenosine Triphosphate (3 phosphate groups),
ADP Adenosine Diphosphate (2 phosphate groups)
ATP is broken down into ADP when… The third phosphate group breaks releasing enough energy for all cellular activity
Oxidation- Reduction Reaction A type of reaction in which an atom or group of atoms becomes more positively charged (oxidized) or becomes less positively charged (reduced)
NAD+ Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Hydrogen Transfer Hydrogen is transferred from a compound to a hydrogen acceptor called a coenzyme
Compound that gives up hydrogen Oxidized and loses energy
Coenzyme that accepts hydrogen Reduced and gains energy
What finally happens to the hydrogen? It continues to be passed from compound to compound until oxygen is present.
Aerobic Requires oxygen
Anaerobic Does not require oxygen
Anaerobes Organisms that carry on respiration in the absence of oxygen
Lactic Acid, Propionic Acid and Acetaldehyde Three organic compounds that are end products of fermentation
Glucose The starting compound for all types of fermentation
Aerobic Respiration Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration, occurs in the mitocondria
Krebs Cycle The series of steps in aerobic respiration when the pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis is further broken down
Citric Acid Cycle Another way to say Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain (ETC) The series of steps that uses energy from NAD+ and FAD to form ATP. During glycolysis, hydrogen atoms have been removed by NAD+ and FAD giving them the energy from the glucose. Produces 32 ATP
ATP Production Produces 36 ATP, Carbon Dioxide and Water
Photosynthesis CO2+H2O–> Glucose+O2
Cellular Respiration O2+Glucose–> CO2+H2O
Energy The ability to do work
Adenine A nitrogenus base found in DNA and RNA
Ribose A 5 carbon sugar found in RNA
Phosphate Groups are also a part of DNA and RNA
Adenosine 1 Adenine+ 1 Ribose
Phosphorylation The transfer of energy when you make or break high energy bonds (~) with the 3rd phosphate group
The Energy Cycle As glucose is broken down, the energy released is used to attach the 3rd phosphate group to ADP to form ATP. When the 3rd phosphate group detaches, energy is released to metabolize the cell
Biochemical Pathway A sequence of chemical reactions that lead to a result of a living cell
Electron Carries Molecules that can accept high energy electrons and protons
Aerobes Organisms that use aerobic respiration
Glycolysis The first step of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, takes place in the cytoplasm, 1 glucose splits into 2 pyruvic acids
Anaerobic Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation Glucose–> Ethyl Alcohol+CO2+2 ATPUsed in the beer and wine industry+ The Baking industry
Lactic Acid Fermentation Glucose–> Lactic Acid+2 ATPCauses cramps
Memorize all charts and diagrams!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *