flash cards

Biology Biochemistry

Term Definition
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
Atom smallest unit of matter
Ion a charged particle
Solution a mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance
Compound a substance made of two or more chemically combines elements
Biochemistry the study of the chemical processes in living organisms
Polar Molecule molecule with unequal areas of charge
Element a pure substance made of one kind of atom
Cohesion an attraction between substances of the same kind
Adhesion an attraction between different substances
Electron negative charge
Proton positive charge
Nuetron no charge
Nucleus control center
Electron Cloud area around nucleus where electrons travel
Chemical Bond force that joins atoms
Covalent Bond shares electrons
Ionic Bond exchanges electrons
Hydrogen Bonds weak chemical attraction between molecules with an unequal distribution of electrical charge
Polarity having areas of unequal charge
Solvent dissolving agent
Solute dissolved substance
Energy the ability to cause matter to move
Kinetic Energy energy an object has because of it's motion
Potential Energy stored energy b/c of it's position
Mechanical Energy engine/machine
Light Energy sun/solar energy
Sound Energy noise
Thermal Energy heat
Electrical Energy plug something in
Chemical Energy (give 2 main examples) ATP- cell energyfood
Calories amount of energy food contains
Energy Transformation Involve _________________ chemical reactions
A + B are _________________ reactants
The arrow in a chemical formula means _________________ yields
AB is _________________ product
Exergonic Reaction exothermic/release of energy
Most reactions are _________________ renewable
Most reactions involve a _________________ transfer of energy
Endergonic Reaction involves a gain of energy
Activation Energy minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Catalyst substance that alters chemical reaction by lowering activation energy required
Catalysts do not make chemical reactions _________________ begin
Catalysts do not change the amount of _________________ contained in a product free energy
Catalysts are not _________________ _________________ by the reaction permanently changed
Catalysts can become _________________ denatured
How can a catalyst become denatured? extremes of pH/temperatures
Substrate the site where a substrate binds to an enzyme
Coenzyme non-protein/shuttles and brings electrons to the site of chemical reaction
0-6 acid
0-3 strong acid
7 neutral
8-14 base
11-14 strong base
8-10 weak base
4-6 weak acid
Blue turns Pink acid
Blue stays Blue base/neutral
Red turns Blue base
Red stays Red acid/neutral
Atoms can join with other atoms to form _________________ substances stable
Atom becomes less stable when its outer electron level is _________________ full
The _________________ of _________________ determines how atoms bond together arrangement of electrons
Elements differ in _________________ of _________________ number of protons
Atom loses an electron becomes _________________ positive
Atom gains an electron becomes _________________ negative
Non polar molecules do not _________________ in water dissolve well
Water helps cells maintain _________________ homeostasis
_________________% of the human body is water 70
Many organisms release heat through water _________________ evaporation
Acid main example HCl Hydrochloric acid
Base main example NaOH sodium hydroxide
pH scale measure ________________ _________________ percent hydrogen
Bond that forms when two atoms share electrons Covalent
Bond that forms when two atoms exchange electrons Ionic
Bond associated with polar molecules Hydrogen
Bond associated with the formation of NaCl Ionic
Bond that holds hydrogen to oxygen in water molecule Covalent
Active Site portion of an enzyme molecule into which a specific substrate can fit

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