flash cards

Bio 111 – Topic 13 (Terms) Phylogenies + Patterns of Evolution

Term Definition
Branches independently evolving lineages
Clade All branches and tips derived from a given node
Homology similarity in two structures as a result of common evolutionary origin
Homoplasy when two structures have a similar function, but different evolutionary origin
Maximum Parsimony Criteria which says the best tree is the one which requires the fewest evolutionary changes
Node Branching point that represents the most resent common ancestor of the descending groups
Paraphyletic Taxonomic group that includes the common ancestor but excludes descendants on one or more branches
Principle of Parsimony Generally: the simplest solution which explains all the data is preferred In Phylogenetics: for any tree and character, the preferred mapping is the one with the fewest number of changes
Phylogeny The reconstruction of evolutionary relationships via trees
Polyphyletic Taxonomic group that does not include the common ancestor
Adaptive Radiation When a single lineage rapidly produces many descendant species w/a wide range of adaptive forms
Taxonomy Classifying and naming organisms
Tips Endpoint of a branch AKA 'terminal node', typically one of the organisms being compared to the others
Monophyletic a clade; taxonomic group that includes the common ancestor and all descendants
Convergent Evolution The independent evolution of similar traits in distantly related organisms due to adaptation to similar environments + lifestyles

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