flash cards

Avian Respiratory

Question Answer
What are the holes on top of the beak External nares
How does air enter the external nares Via the nasal concha
What is the main sinus Intraorbital sinus
How does air enter the oral cavity Air passes through the nasal cavity and into the oral cavity via the two internal nares called choanae
What are choanae Two slits on the roof of the mouth that link nasal passages to the oral cavity
What is a glottis Opening to the trachea
Where does the trachea carry air from The larynx to the bronchi
What is the syrinx Voice box
How does the syrinx make noise The muscles, air sacs and vibrating membranes. Once air is pushed out it passes over these vibrating membranes and the vibrations produce sound
What kind of rings does the trachea have Complete
What does the trachea divide into 2 bronchi at the level of the sternum
What does the main bronchi do Carries air to each lung then lose their cartlage and become mesobronchi and further division takes place
Describe the lungs Small, attached to the thoracic vertebrate and ribs, are bright red, very vascular, inelastic
Does the bird have a diaphragm No
Describe the air sacs Thin walled, transparent, 9 in total
Functions of airsacs Reservoir for air, warmth and moisture helps air diffuse into air sacs, thermoregulation for evaporating water, buoyancy- moves air into bottom to dive and moves it back up to float , airsacs descend into bones – diverticula
What is diverticula Air sacs descend into bones to lighten the bones
How many inhalations and exhalations does a bird have 2
How does the bird breathe The sternum moves downwards during inspiration cause the coelomic cavity to expand and allowing air to be drawn through the lungs into the air sacs
Explain the respiratory cycle Air flows into the coelomic cavity where it is warmed and moisture is added. It then goes to the lungs for gas exchange. Air goes into the anterior air sacs and finally trachea where it is expelled
What direction does air flow in One
Do old and fresh air mix No
How is heat taken out of the body During regular breathing. The birds may pant to lost more heat
How do birds lose heat (6) Bathe, shelter, deficate on legs, adjust feathers, adjust the flow of blood to legs, pearching on leg to reduce cold exposure, shivering

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