flash cards

316 Unit 5 test Sacrum/coccyx and lumbar

Question Answer
Can you shield on lumbar spines and sacrum/coccyx? Yes gonads on male patients
What is visualized on an AP Axial Sacrum? Sacrum not foreshortened and the sacral foramina seen
What is visualized on an AP Axial coccyx? Coccyx free of superimposition, gas and feces
What is visualized on a lateral sacrum and coccyx? Lateral profile of sacrum centered
What is visualized on lateral coccyx? Coccyx in profile (centered) and segment interspaces open
What is seen on oblique spines to ensure they are actually oblique correctly? Scottie Dog sign
What are the landmarks used for lumbar and sacrum/coccyx and where do they correspond? Xiphoid tip- T9/T10Lower Costal Margin- L2/L3Iliac Crest- L4/5ASIS- S1/2Symphysis Pubis
On an AP lumbar spine what is the leg position? Knees and hip flexed
What is visualized on an AP or PA L-spine? T11/12 to sacrum; collimate into SI joints
What is visualized on an Oblique L-spine? L1-S1, scottie dogs and open z joints, pedicle near center of vertebral body
What is visualized on a lateral lumbar spine? T12 to distal sacrum, intervertebral disk spaces and intervertebral foramina open
What is visualized on a lateral L5-S1 spine? L4/5 and S1 shown and centered and joint spaces open
What is visualized on an AP Axial L5-S1? L5-S1 joint space demonstrated
What is the SID for all lumbar and sacrum/coccyx xrays? 40 inch SID
CR point for AP Axial Sacrum 15 degrees cephalad; directed to enter 2 inches superior to pubic symphysis
CR point for AP Axial Coccyx 10 degrees caudal; directed to enter 2 inches superior to pubic symphysis
CR point for Lateral Sacrum and Coccyx 3 to 4 inches posterior to ASIS
CR point Lateral Coccyx 3 to 4 inches posterior to ASIS and 2 inches distal to ASIS
Exposure factors for AP Axial Sacrum and Coccyx 80 kvp and 15 mAs92 kvp and 8 mAs
Exp. factors for Lateral Sacrum and Coccyx 90 kvp and 55 mAs
Exp. factors for Lateral Coccyx 80 kvp and 70 mAs
CR point for AP Lumbar Spine Iliac Crest
CR point for Oblique Lumbar Spines 1-1.5 inches above iliac crest and 2 inches medial to upside ASIS
CR point for Lateral Lumbar Spine Iliac Crest
Exp. factors for AP Lumbar spine 80 kvp 15 mAs92 kvp 8 mAs
Exp. factors for PA Lumbar Spine 92 kvp 8 mAs
Exp. factors for Oblique Lumbar Spine 80 kvp 15 mAs
Exp. factors for Lateral Lumbar Spine Female: 90 kvp 50 mAsMale: 90 kvp 65 mAs
CR point for Lateral Lumbar Spine: L5-S1 spot 1-1.5 inches inferior to iliac crest and 2 inches posterior to ASIS
CR point for AP Axial L5 to S1 L Spine Angle 30 degrees for males and 35 for females; @ level of ASIS
Exp. factors for L5-S1 spot Lumbar Spine 100 kvp and 50 mAs
Exp. factors for AP Axial L5-S1 spot 80 kvp and 20 mAs
What can you do to get the spine straight on a Lateral lumbar? Throw on a 5-8 degree caudal angle
CR point for Hyperflexion/Hyperextension Spinal Fusion Site of fusion
Exp. factors for hyperflexion/hyperextension spinal fusion 90 kvp and 50 mAs
How many vertebrae in the Lumbar Spine 5
What are Z joints classification, mobility type and movement type? Synovial, Diarthrodial, Plane/gliding
What are the Intervertebral joint class, mobility, movement type? Cartilaginous, Amhiarthrodial, N/A
Why is the PA position Lumbar more of an advantage than the AP? Puts the lumbar spine w/ its natural curve so that the intervertebral disk spaces are almost parallel to the divergent x-ray beam and it open up the joint spaces better. Also lowers ovarian dose in females.
Inflammatory condition that usually begins in the SI joints and progresses up the vertebral column; may become rigid as the intervertebral and costovertebral joints fuse; most common in men in their 30s Ankylosing Spondylitis
Due to Trauma, osteoporosis, or metastatic disease; superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body are driven together, producing a wedge shaped fx Compression FX
Hyperflexion force that causes fx through the vertebral body and posterior elements; pts wearing lap type seat belts are at risk for this Chance FX
Usually due to trauma or improper lifting; soft inner part of the intervertebral disk protrudes through the fibrous outer layer, pressing on the spinal cord and nerves. Most frequently in L4/5 causing sciatic. Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)
The normal concave curvature of the lumbar spine and an abnormal or exaggerated concave lumbar curvature Lordosis
Primary malignant neoplasms that spread to distant sites via blood and lymphatics Metastases
Destructive lesions with irregular margins Osteolytic
Proliferative bony lesions of increased density Osteoblastic
Moth-eaten appearance of bone resulting from the mix of destructive and blastic lesions Combo of osteolytic and osteoblastic
Lateral curvature of the vertebral column that usually occurs with some rotation of the vertebrae; usually T and L Spine Scoliosis
Congenital condition in which the posterior aspects of the vertebrae fail to develop, thus exposing part of the spinal cord; mostly in L5 Spina Bifida
Involves the forward movement of one vertebrae in relation to another; commonly due to a developmental defect in the pars interarticularis or may result from spondylolysis or severe osteoarthritis; most common at L5-S1 or L4/5 Spondylolisthesis
Dissolution of a vertebrae, such as from aplasia of the vertebral arch and separation of the pars interarticularis of the vertebrae; Scottie dog appears broken on scottie dog; L4/5 Spondylolysis
AP Lumbar is good for diagnosing what? Fx's, scoliosis, and neoplastic processes
Oblique lumbar is good for diagnosing what? Defects of the pars interarticularis
Lateral Lumbar is good for diagnosing what? Fx's, spondylolisthesis, neoplastic processes and osteoporosis

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